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This specialised branch of dentistry deals with the detailed study and identification of the pathologic process affecting the oral and maxillofacial region by correlating the clinical, radiographic and mainly microscopic studies. The practices of oral pathology include histopathology, cytology, biochemistry, hematology and the more recent additions like PCR, In-Situ Hybridisation etc. Since a vast majority of the diseases affecting the oral region are infections caused by micro-organisms, the study of Oral Microbiology is also included within this specialty. This department caters to the micro-diagnosis of oral lesions, thereby contributing to the exact recognition of the disease and charting the patient management including incidences of premalignancies and oral cancer. This has evidently elevated the importance of the specialty in the diagnosis of these entities.